According to the international standard definition, it is one of the types of metamorphic limestone, the main component of which is calcium carbonate, and it is composed of other components such as calcite, dolomite and crystal.
Due to the presence of magnesium carbonate in the structure of this stone, it is called dolomitic, calcite and magnesium marble. The finer the crystals in this rock, the greater its solubility and stability against weathering This type of building stone has less porosity than travertine, but its compressive and abrasion resistance is higher. In industry, all limestone or dolomite that can be polished is called marble, although they have not changed at all. Marble sometimes even includes limestone outside the definition of marble. Marbles become marble if they are transformed. Dense marbles or limestones are the result of compaction of calcium carbonate or aragonite sediments due to the pressure of the upper layers, which sometimes show weak metamorphic effects. Marble is a precious stone because of its beauty, strength and resistance to fire and erosion. Compared to travertine, marble is more used for interior facades due to its higher hardness and less porosity. Pure marble has a bright white color. Light gray to black, due to carbonaceous materials, green colors usually due to chlorite or other silicates, pink and red colors due to the presence of very fine particles of hematite or manganese carbonate, and yellow and cream colors due to the presence of limonite. The specific gravity of marbles is higher than that of ordinary limestones due to the presence of magnesium. Pure calcite marbles used on stairs, floors or outside buildings are usually crushed quickly. If marbles containing magnesium carbonate are more resistant. In this type of stones, fossils are sometimes seen that give them an interesting appearance when polished. Of course, provided that the type and material of these fossils do not adversely affect the physical and chemical characteristics of the rock . Similar types of rocks are found in most parts of the country and active mines are also available in this field. Coarse-grained, white or light gray to cream marble is called crystal.White crystal marble is called porcelain stone. Tang Hana mines (Neyriz-Fars province), Najafabad, Aligudarz crystal and porcelain and Lai Bid and Godar Sorkh of Moteh area are among the famous mines of Iran.Polished surface, unique gloss, high strength and resistance, and various colors and designs have made this type of stone one of the most sought after export stones and one of the luxury building stones.Resin, adhesive and epoxy are usually used to increase strength and durability to cover the pores in the rock and increase its stability against pressure.One way to determine the density and solidity is to hit the back of the rock with a metal object. If the resulting sound is lower to the untapped part of the rock, it has a higher density.
What are the properties of marble?
- Various designs and colors and its polished and shiny surface;
- High specific weight of this stone;
- Easy to install;
- Low porosity and high adhesion to mortar;
- Low water absorption;
- High thermal resistance;
- High abrasion, compressive and flexural resistance to travertine;
- Excellent sub-susceptibility;
- Suitable choice for the interior of the building as a floor and
- wall covering at a reasonable price;
- Existence of rich and quality mines in Iran;
- Does not lose its color over a long period of time;
- Low resistance to acid, alkali and erosion. Therefore, it is recommended not to use it in toilets and bathrooms that are in contact with detergents;
- Appearance change in the face of climate change;
- Some specimens have high water absorption, so they are not suitable for the exterior of buildings and places with high drainage;
- Its low resistance to granite, so it is recommended to use granite in crowded and busy places;
In what places is marble mostly used?
Choosing this stone in the interior of buildings, walls, stairs, kitchen counters, etc. is a good option.
Persian Silk Bayat has always been widely welcomed by architects and interior designers all over the country due to its high quality, stunning beauty, radiance and popular color.
This stone can be used in the exterior of buildings if the following two conditions are met:
1- The surface of the stone is not worn
2- Use a high thickness of stone.
Marble is usually used as an ax or sandblast or windbreaker that has a non-glossy surface and a minimum thickness of 2.5 cm. Tehran Freedom Tower is an example of this type of application in which martyr marble has been used.
Types of marble
As you know, this stone is one of the best-selling types of building stones .This stone is known in the market with different types .Among the famous stones of this group can be Dehbid, Khoy, Abadeh, Ati Brown, Adavi, Arsanjan, Ark Bastam, Ocean Black, Diplomat, Raspersia, African Black, Iqbal Yazd, Emperor Dark, Emperor Light, Persian Silk, Jartoshavsi Shahyadi, Chehrak, Chita, Bajestan, Khatam Kerman, Royal Brown Turkey, Sabz Seattle, Sefid Sabzevar, Kashmar, Shahrekord, Salsali, Kamelia, Karam Kerman, Kashan Desert, Kowsar, Black Kashan, Gandmak, Khorramabad Gem, Lashtar, Latte Turkey , Spider lemon, Mahkam, Najafabad black, Mashhad miniature, Miami, Yazd miniature, Nafis Yazd, Neyriz, Namin, Harsin, Sirjan ruby, Buchlato or leopard marble and Homay Abrisham.
Today, Italy is one of the major countries in the field of processing this product.In Iran, due to the existence of mines rich in this stone and the high quality of this stone, the production of this beautiful building stone has increased.According to international statistics, Iran is one of the 10 major countries with rich stone reserves in terms of diversity and richness of building stone reserves, of which with a share of 53%, it has the highest production in this sector.After that, granite with 35%, travertine with 10.5% and marble with less than 1% are produced and marketed.Leading provinces in the field of processing and production of this building stone include Isfahan, Neyriz Fars, Markazi and Kurdistan, Azna, Aligudarz and south of Kerman.The origin of this beautiful stone is Fars province near the city of Neyriz, which Persian Silk Bayat mine is one of the most famous and high quality mines in Iran.Bayat stone mine as the largest gray mine in Iran and the owner of the best gray stone in the world called Silk Emperor or Persian Silk has made Ati Sang Group the only producer of this beautiful and high quality building stone in Iran and the world.The high quality of the stone extracted from this mine has led to very good export sorts. Persian Silk Bayat, produced by Ati Sang Group, has attracted the attention of many top designers and architects of the building. This stone has a gray background with white veins.Structurally, Persian silk is very strong and high thermal, abrasion and flexural resistance and low water absorption, very high density has made it one of the highest quality luxury stones in the Iranian market.Also, the white and light lines on the surface of the stone make this stone as beautiful as possible.
Processing of marble
Which stone should we choose for marble or travertine?
The difference between the two stones
Both of these types of stones are calcareous and both can be a good floor for a building or business center.These two stones have their own advantages and disadvantages. We will briefly discuss the difference between these two stones: Marble, like other stones, has different types that offer different properties. To choose the right flooring, we can determine it by its hardness and color patterns.As we have introduced marble in detail above, the common colors include black and white, gray, pink, blue or green.The texture of all types is very smooth and most stonecutters process it in a shiny and polished state.Travertine dogs have a relatively soft texture and a more natural appearance than other building blocks.This stone absorbs water and is porous. This porosity has advantages and disadvantages, for example, it works very well in the adhesion of stone to cement and has the best adhesion among stones, but the same porosity causes this stone to have high water absorption and Not suitable for bathrooms and toilets.A practical solution to prevent water from penetrating the travertine stone is the resin of this stone during processing. Travertine is typically warm in color and is found in white, cream, beige, gold, brown, and even red.
The difference between porcelain stone and marble
Due to the structural and fundamental similarities, there are some differences, and for those who are not fully acquainted with the industry, it is difficult to distinguish between the two.Marble is a type of sedimentary limestone, while porcelain is a type of limestone from metamorphism.Commercially and popularly in China, white sugar stones are said to have high hardness and scientifically, porcelain or crystal stone is a stone that has recrystallized due to the increase in heat caused by the injection of hot magma with high pressure. .
Use porcelain stone for facade and outdoor space
According to the given explanations, it is clear that limestone has a high durability in indoor environments, but porcelain stone is a very correct choice for facades and outdoor spaces. The resistance of porcelain stone to surface weathering and sunlight is exemplary.
The difference between marble and limestone
They are similar in nature as both are composed of calcium carbonate.Structurally, limestone belongs to the group of sedimentary rocks, which is caused by compression and hardening of the upper layers due to high pressure, but marble belongs to the group of metamorphic rocks, which in addition to withstanding the pressure of the upper layers, is also affected by the earth's crust. And therefore metamorphic rocks are more resistant to sedimentary rocks.Limestone is one of the weak stones in the market that is not very resistant to weather conditions, so that due to temperature changes in hot and dry areas, they easily lose their original state and cracks are formed in it, which in a short time the stone It breaks down.In addition, calcium carbonate compounds absorb moisture, so it can not be used as a stone facade in sultry and humid areas, and in the interior decoration of homes in wet areas such as bathrooms and kitchens.In addition to the above, the sedimentary nature of limestone is found in large pores, which as a result of high porosity in the rock over time reduces its useful life.Limestone also has very low compressive strength and poor sub-resistance to another.Uses of limestone in the interior walls of the building such as: corridor walls, parking lot walls and stairs.In terms of color variety, marbles have a high color variety from white, cream red, yellow, orange pink, brown, green to black due to the presence of impurities.Limestone stones have very little color variation and are mostly found in white and cream to light brown colors.The price of limestone is relatively lower.